The Ultimate Guide on Car Engine Parts | Smart Parts Export

Whether a human or an engine, both of them require energy for a start to move. For any developed and equipped modern age-car, one thing that does not change and remains its core, is the car engine part, or engine components.

The engine is responsible for transforming the energy from fuel with spark, in order to create power that leads in movement. A car engine does not just consist of a single unit, but is a complete engine schematic, composed of motor vehicle engine parts.

Todays, modern automobiles which derives power from the internal combustion engines operate on two principle parts, being mechanical and electrical.

What are principle car engine parts?

Like it was mentioned above, majorly a car’s engine is composed of two principle parts, being mechanical and electrical. Both of these engine parts work hand-in-hand for driving an automobile in a smooth and operative condition.

Ideally, the notions of getting advanced electrical parts combined with mechanical once showed better results in making highly equipped and smart cars, that most of the automobile brands use. These principle parts are responsible cars performance efficiency and health.

So, lets get to know them all.

Mechanical components of car engines

There is a total of 11 essential mechanical parts of an engine, which forms the base of its motion dynamics with moving parts.

They form the foundation for any car’s engine and are the most important chunks.

1. Piston

A piston forms the cylindrical part which reciprocates up and down making strokes, wherein fuel is admitted. This reciprocation movement of a piston, enables the process of compression and expansion leading to the combustion cycle. Three rings, known to be piston rings are fitted in circular machined recesses on the piston surface.

These rings are important as they help in creating compression and reduces the friction from the constant rubbing of a cylinder. Materials mostly used for pistons car are cast iron or aluminum alloy, because they can bear high wear and tear along with resistance. The oil ring present which is the lowermost piston ring is made up of aluminum. Purpose of this oil ring is to ensure smooth oil distribution throughout.

2. Crankshaft

Crankshaft is that part of car engine, which has projections from the shaft axis. They are known as crank throws or crankpins. This design is needed for converting sliding motion obtained from the piston, into rotatory motion, through a connecting rod.

Materials used for castings of crankshaft is steel or roll forging process, or ductile steel through castings. Singular crankshafts ae created from carbon steels along with heat treatments. With this a frequently used micro-alloy steels is vanadium, for imparting superior strength. One can buy online car engine parts, most of them.

3. Connecting rod

Connecting rod, is the connecting link between the piston and crankshaft. This converts the linear motion of the piston into rotatory motion of the crank. While one of its ends is attached to the piston through a piston pin, its other end is attached to crankpin through bolts.

Thus, both its ends are in continuous motion even under tremendous pressure and stress imparted from piston. The connecting rods is one of the most sensitive car engine parts, prone to failure. Therefore, high degree materials like aluminum alloy and forged steel are used for their castings.

4. Oil pump and oil sump

The function of oil pump is to distribute oil in various parts of the engine for better lubrication, cooling and cleaning. Whereas the string chamber, where all this oil is pumped from is called as the oil sump.

Both of these are inter connected to each other. This oil is pressurized to passages machined, when lubrication and cooling is required. The oil is lifted from its sump also known as oil pan or oil reservoir, and then through wire mesh strainer all debris and dirt is held back. This bring pure oil for the engines function.

5. Fuel pump

A fuel or diesel pump, in a CI engine is used for pressurizing fuel such that it atomizes and when sprayed in the cylinder, gets ignited when comes in contact of air. This system consists of fuel filter, spring loaded piston valve in a cylinder.

The pressure, through pressure lines are transmitted to injector to small openings called nozzles in cylinder. Thus, the fuel gets atomized and ignited with this process

6. Cylinder and cylinder head

The engine cylinder is a part where the fuel is admitted and reciprocating motion of piston is initiated. Bore and stroke are two important technical terms associated with the cylinder, which are inner diameter and effective length respectively. Along these two, a piston reciprocates in a cylinder.

A cylinder head is the top part of the cylinder block which is a house for valves rocker arms, and ignition elements. This head is bolted with a head gasket in between them. Cylinder head also forms an essential car engine part, for the combustion chamber, that is machined into it on the underside.

7. Other important mechanical parts

Along with the above-mentioned parts are camshafts, valves, rocker arm and crankcase, all forming the skeleton of car engine parts, connecting to each other for regulating internal motion, and driving its energy from part to other.

Hence with all these 11 parts, the mechanical structure of a car’s engine remains incomplete.

Electrical component of car engines

Since an essential part of a car engine diagram, is laid by the electrical parts, it is foolishly to ignore them in this context. So, lets understand these car engine components along with their functions in brief.

1. Alternator

  • Ac generator used to charge cars battery.
  • Electromechanical device used to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy.
  • Uses a set of advanced rectifiers and diodes to convert AC to DC.
  • It uses the principle of magnetic flux inducing e.m.f in stator winding, for driving engine parts.

2. Stator motor

  • High torque motor used for cranking the engine.
  • Stator motor is connected to a relay, which is a key operated switch, and a battery.
  • As this key switch on, circuit is completed this push the pinion on the motor shaft that connects into mesh with flywheel gear.
  • This is further connected to ignitions elements initiating the entire process.

3. Spark plug

  • A spark plug is an electrical device which is used to ignite the fuel in the combustion chamber. This is achieved at the end of compression stroke inside the cylinder due to expansion and compression of piston reciprocation.
  • The fuel is ignited and due to this it expands and pushes the piston down, so the power stroke can be obtained.
  • The spark plug is well fitted into the cylinder head on the underside of combustion chamber through plug body.
  • Spark plug consists of two electrodes, one is a central electrode, that is connected to the ignition coil also known to be magneto through a highly insulated and tension wire.
  • The other electrode, is at the base of the plug and is kept grounded. A small gap is deliberately maintained between the two electrodes, for voltage ignitions.
  • It requires a voltage range of 12,000- 25,000V in order to fire correctly.

4. Electronic fuel injector

  • The function of injector is to mix the fuel with air, at such high pressure that it gets ignited. This electronically accommodated fuel injection controls injection process so that only the required amount of fuel is injected into cylinder.
  • Although, it is electrically functioned, yet is not automatic. This is controlled by a hardware programmed, that analyses fuel meter with accuracy and optimizes fuel and air ratio at all speeds of engine.
  • Assisted with sensors, on the crankshaft, fuel injector monitors rotational speed, mass flow sensors, oxygen sensors, and throttle position sensors of engine, that gives the hardware feedback about proper functioning.
  • Forming a closed loop feedback system, this immensely helps in proper fuel distribution, into all cylinders and improves engine performance initiating less maintenance.

5. Ignition coil

  • Ignition coil is again one of the important electrical car engine parts, that generates voltage to be supplied to spark plug.
  • It consists of two coils, one which is primarily and another is a secondary one.
  • The primary one is connected into battery and secondary to a capacitor and distributor which is grounded.
  • Primary coil turns are thicker and few in number while the secondary coil has thin and comparatively larger number of turns.
  • Current produced in primary coil induces a current in secondary current due to the principle of mutual induction.
  • This is then stored in capacitor and supplied to distributor which distributes current among spark plugs.

Dealing with engine problems

With the accommodation of so many car engine parts, each having a function and requirement of its own, and majorly being connected to each other, it is obvious that there can be some problems emerging in them. There are some common engine problems that can be solved by an individual having good and appropriate engine parts knowledge, rest of them will need replacement or a good car mechanics indulges.

However, for much of replacements issues, Smart Parts Export is always an ideal solution. Many of them are available online on reliable websites for car engine parts. Here are most common engine problems and their symptoms.

1. Compression issues

  • Loss of power
  • Misfiring
  • No-start resonance.

2. Cracked engine block issues

  • Leads to overheating.
  • Smoke exhausts.
  • Coolant leakage on sides of engine.

3. Damaged parts of cylinders

  • Rattling sounds.
  • Blue smoke exhausts.
  • Emission failures.

4. Damaged bearings or pins

  • Tapping and ticking sounds.
  • Low oil pressures
  • Metal shavings in engine oil

Upon so many problems, it is much advisable to consult a good mechanic or servicing centers if symptoms to any of these are found. This increases your vehicle life, and maintains its engine health.


Maintaining your car engine parts health, though looks complicated, but it isn’t the way it seems to be. The simplest yet most important functions of any automobile are to drive your vehicle forward making a movement. Hence it is imperative that your vehicle needs proper servicing and maintenance time to time.

Scheduled oiling’s, fluid flushes and manual checking’s are responsibilities on one’s part and in this way, you can ensure all round longevity of your vehicle’s engine and it’s over all robustness.

FAQ Questions

How many parts are in an engine?

There are 11 major mechanical car engine parts, and about 5 electrical components that make up a car engine. Moreover, a lot of them are crankshafts and supporting elements, but they are equally responsible for their vital functioning.

How to tell if your engine is blown?

The following symptoms are observable in case of a blown engine case, you might notice blue smoke exhaust, rattling or knocking sounds from engine, white exhaust exiting, or engine starting problems.

If any of these occur, there is chance that your engine gas blown.

How to build a car engine?

Here are a few tips and steps that might help. Soak your new lifters in engine oil overnight. Install piston rings on the piston, make sure you install all three of them. Turn the top and install its top half with mains and rod bearings and coat its visible side. Flip the top again and put rod bearings this time in bearing caps on one of the piston rods.

Coat the bearings well with STP oil treatment. Now install the coated lifters. Lastly make sure you install rocker arms and pushrods along with the valve covers. Now the engine is ready

What does an oil do to an engine?

The main purpose of oiling is to lubricate parts of the engine, for reducing the friction. Moreover, the additive help in oil thickening for protecting engine parts under high temperature conditions. This protects your engine from corrosion and wear and tear.

Can an oil change stop engine knocking?

If you persistently hear knocking sounds from engine, it is a sign that now you need to get to a mechanic. Certainly, in such cases changing oil wont help.

It is possible that the bearings, piston, cylinder help has developed a problem and it needs servicing.

What is the difference between gasoline and diesel engine?

In a diesel engine, fuel is injected into cylinder, and due to heat and pressure of compression stroke, fuel ignites. Whereas in a gasoline engine, the ignition is initiated by spark plug. Hence the only basic difference between both types of engine is spark plug.

What is the difference between two-stroke and four-stroke engine?

Two-stroke engines consists of more valves and spark plug is present to ignite the fuel. In two-stroke engine, a hole in the bottom part of the cylinder wall allows air and gas inside.

As the piston reciprocates to compressed position, the spark plug initiates ignition and exhausts exists through another hole in cylinder. Oil and gas need to be mixed in two-stroke cylinder because, the holes in this cylinder wall prevents the use of rings for sealing combustion chamber. It is far more polluting than four-stroke as uses more gasoline and burns more oil.

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