Brakes for car serve as the most important component of a vehicle. A great vehicle performance is defined by good brakes, because acceleration and stopping power with brakes define safety and driving performance.
Brakes are mechanical devices that absorb energy from a moving system. This mechanism is used to slower, or stop the vehicle movements which is attained by the principle of friction.
The working of brakes for car
In a brake system, when the driver presses the brake pedal there is a force that is generated, which is boosted by the vacuum from the engine. This effect causes the brakes to respond quicker. This force created from the vacuum booster pushes the piston that resides inside the master cylinder against the spring force causing the brake fluid to flow under pressure.
This pressurized fluid reaches the brake caliper and the brake cylinder through fluid lines. Usually, less attention is paid towards the brakes for car. Considering a situation where, a driver may step on the brakes pedal a thousand times, lightly, harshly, and that brakes systems in car last for roughly 40-60,000 miles, it is most likely to undergo wear and tear.
Hence brake systems should be looked after regularly ensuring good maintenance.
How brakes work in a car system
There are different types of brake systems, each with its benefits and advantages. Some of them are as elaborated,
1. Electromagnetic brake system
In an electromagnetic brake system, an electric motor included in the automobile which helps the vehicle to stop is utilized. It is mostly found in hybrid and many advanced electric cars, which use an electric motor to charge the batteries and regenerative brakes.
2. Frictional brake system
In a frictional brake system, there are service brakes which is mostly found in pads and shoe brake types. As the title suggests, the principle used to stop the motion of the vehicle is friction. The pads are located on the top of the disc rotating along with the front wheel and the shoes located inside the drum, rotating along with the rear wheel.
This pad will close on the disc and stop the vehicle and the shoes will expand and rub with the drum to restrict motion.
3. Hydraulic brake system
In a hydraulic brake system, a composition of a master cylinder fed by a reservoir of hydraulic braking fluid is utilized. This is connected with the support of an assortment of metal pipes along with rubber fittings that are attached to the cylinders of the wheels.
The wheel consists of two opposite pistons that are present on the band or drum brakes, which pressurize to push the pistons apart forcing the brake pads into the cylinder, hence forcing the wheel to stop motion.
Components used in brake systems
Components used in the brake systems, make the complete structure of the brakes for car, here are some of them that are essential.
1. Brake pedal
Brake pedals are present in the center of the accelerator and clutch pedal. It is activated only when brake pedal goes to the floor, after pressing it.
2. Floating calipers
Floating calipers, move along with rotor using a piston on a single side of the disc to push inner brake pads into the braking surface before the caliper body is pulled inside to apply pressure on the opposite side of discs.
3. Fixed calipers
Unlike floating calipers, fixed calipers do not move relative to the rotor. Moreover, it uses one or more single pairs of opposite pistons clamped to each side of the rotor.
4. Brake fluid reservoir and fluid lines
A brake fluid reservoir also known as brake oil is used for all types of lubrication in braking systems. Whereas fluid lines are pipes through which the brake fluid is transmitted through the vehicle.
5. Brake drum and brake lining
Brake drum is a rotating drum-shaped part, utilized in drum brakes, whereas brake lining is a heat-resistant, soft yet tough material which persists a high friction characteristic fitted inside a brake shoe.
6. Brake pads and brake shoes
With steel-backed plates used in disc brakes, brake pads are usually made of ceramic metal or any other hard-wearing composite materials. On the other part, brake shoes are 2 parts of sheet steel, welded together that carry the brake lining.
How to cope with brake problems
Since the brakes serve the safety part of the vehicle, it undergoes most wear and tear and troubles. The following points are alarming when it comes to brake maintenance.
- Brake pedals feel too soft and sponge-like.
- There is vibration through the brake pedal while breaking
- While braking the brakes excessively travel on the floor.
- There is pulling to one side while braking.
- One or more wheels locking up and skidding while braking.
Other signs of sensing trouble are not most prominent; however, they can be equally important indicating towards a braking system issue,
- Strange noises, or groaning, screeching sounds from the brake system. Especially a metallic screech or squealing noises. Since many brake pads are designed with steel tab, protruding from backed plates, these sounds can be alerting.
- Metal-to-metal grinding sounds indicating friction surface being worn clearly in the automotive braking system. In such cases, braking capabilities reduces and can cause dangerous threats to life, breaking the smooth surface of the brake rotors.
Brakes are essential lifeline like systems in a vehicle. With Smart Parts Export of original spare parts, any replacement issues around it can be solved. Hence this guide gives a clear idea about it, right from where are brakes located on a car, to have to sense the trouble issues relating to it along with essential components of brakes for car.